United Holocaust Memorial Museum
Varian Fry Institute
Columbia University – Varian Fry Papers
Hero And Oddball
Sir Martin Gilbert: The Holocaust
Sir Martin Gilbert: The Righteous
Jewish World Review
Material licensed under the
GNU Free Documentation License from Wikipedia.
What is the Holocaust?
The Holocaust was the systematic annihilation of six million Jews by the Nazi regime during World War 2. In 1933 approximately nine million Jews lived in the 21 countries of Europe that would be occupied by Germany during the war. By 1945 two out of every three European Jews had been killed. The European Jews were the primary victims of the Holocaust.
But Jews were not the only group singled out for persecution by Hitler�s Nazi regime. As many as one-half million Gypsies, at least 250,000 mentally or physically disabled persons, and more than three million Soviet prisoners-of-war also fell victim to Nazi genocide. Jehovah�s Witnesses, homosexuals, Social Democrats, Communists, partisans, trade unionists, Polish intelligentsia and other undesirables were also victims of the hate and aggression carried out by the Nazis.
How many Jews were murdered during the Holocaust?
While it is impossible to ascertain the exact number of Jewish victims, statistics indicate that the total was over 5,830,000. Six million is the round figure accepted by most authorities.
What does Final Solution mean?
The term Final Solution (Die Endlosung) refers to the Germans� plan to physically liquidate all Jews in Europe. The term was used at the Wannsee Conference held in Berlin on January 20, 1942, where German officials discussed its implementation.
How many children were murdered during the Holocaust?
The number of children killed during the Holocaust is not fathomable and full statistics for the tragic fate of children who died will never be known. Some estimates range as high as 1.5 million murdered children. This figure includes more than 1.2 million Jewish children, tens of thousands of Gypsy children and thousands of institutionalized handicapped children who were murdered under Nazi rule in Germany and occupied Europe.
Why did Hitler hate the Jews?
Holocaust happened because Hitler and the Nazis were racist. They believed the German people were a ‘master race’, who were superior to others. They even created a league table of ‘races’ with the Aryans at the top and with Jews, Gypsies and black people at the bottom. These ‘inferior’ people were seen as a threat to the purity and strength of the German nation. When the Nazis came to power they persecuted these people, took away their human rights and eventually decided that they should be exterminated.
How did the Nazis carry our their policy of genocide?
In the late 1930’s the Nazis killed thousands of handicapped Germans by lethal injection and poisonous gas. After the German invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, mobile killing units following in the wake of the German Army began shooting massive numbers of Jews and Gypsies in open fields and ravines on the outskirts of conquered cities and towns.
Eventually the Nazis created a more secluded and organized method of killing. Six extermination centers were established in occupied Poland where large-scale murder by gas and body disposal through cremation were conducted systematically. Victims were deported to these centers from Western Europe and from the ghettos in Eastern Europe which the Nazis had established. In addition, millions died in the ghettos and concentration camps as a result of forced labor, starvation, exposure, brutality, disease, and execution.
When was the first concentration camp established?
Dachau was the first concentration camp established and was opened on March 22, 1933. The camp’s first inmates were primarily political prisoners (Communists or Social Democrats), habitual criminals, homosexuals, Jehovah’s Witnesses, and anti-socials (beggars, vagrants, hawkers). Others considered problematic by the Nazis were also included (Jewish writers and journalists, lawyers, unpopular industrialists).
What is a death camp? How many? Where?
A death camp camp is a concentration camp with special apparatus especially designed for mass murder. Six such camps existed: Auschwitz-Birkenau, Belzec, Chelmno, Majdanek, Sobibor, and Treblinka. All were located in Poland.
What was Auschwitz-Birkenau?
Auschwitz-Birkenau became the killing centre where the largest numbers of European Jews were killed. After an experimental gassing there in September 1941 of 850 malnourished and ill prisoners, mass murder became a daily routine. By mid 1942, mass gassing of Jews using Zyklon-B began at Auschwitz, where extermination was conducted on an industrial scale with some estimates running as high as three million persons eventually killed through gassing, starvation, disease, shooting, and burning.
Did the Jews resist?
Many Jews simply could not believe that Hitler really meant to kill them all. But once the Nazis had complete control and the Jews were being relocated to ghettos, rations were reduced, conditions were horrible and the Jews did not have the strength, physically, emotionally, or militarily, to resist. There were uprisings in the camps, but it was incredibly difficult and rarely successful.
Elie Wiesel put it this way: “The question is not why all the Jews did not fight, but how so many of them did. Tormented, beaten, starved, where did they find the strength – spiritual and physical – to resist?” Those attempting to resist faced almost impossible odds.
A Teacher’s Guide to the Holocaust
A – THE – World War 2 Portal
Ada Holtzman: We Remember!
Aktion Reinhard Camps
Court TV: A Look Back at Nuremberg
Cybrary of the Holocaust
David Dickerson Holocaust Resources
Dinur Center for the Study of Jewish History
War Crimes and Genocide
Fortunoff Video Archive – Yale University
The Holocaust Chronicle web site
Holocaust Guide at about.com
The Holocaust History Project
The Holocaust\Shoah Page
Holocaust – A true story
Humor as a defense mechanism
The Jewish Student Online Research Center
The Kindertransport Organization Home Page
Lives, The Biography Resource
Literature of the Holocaust
March of the Living
The Nizkor Project
Non-Jewish Victims of the Holocaust
The Nuremberg War Crimes Trials
Online Holocaust Magazine
Polish Jews in World War II
The Simon Wiesenthal Center
Teaching the Holocaust through Stamps
Virtual Library Geschichte: Drittes Reich
Women And The Holocaust
A Virtual Tour of Auschwitz
Aktion Reinhard Camps
Auschwitz Endstation Vernichtung
Welcome to the Auschwitz Jewish Center
Chelmno – testimonies of the last prisoners
Map Of the Camps
Nazi Concentration Camps 1933-1945
Anne Frank Center USA
Anne Frank House
Austrian Holocaust Memorial Service
El Paso Holocaust Museum and Study Center
The Ghetto Fighters’ House
Hiatt Collection of Holocaust Materials
Holocaust Memorial Center – Detroit, Michigan
Holocaust Museum Houston
Imperial War Museum – Holocaust Section
Moshe Rynecki (1881-1943) Virtual Museum
Museum of Jewish Heritage
Mus�e-m�morial des enfants d’Izieu
Neuengamme Concentration Camp Memorial
The Candles Holocaust Museum
United States Holocaust Museum
The Chambon Foundation
Corrie ten Boom -‘The Secret Room’
Holocaust Rescuers Bibliography
Images from Rescuers 1986-1992
The Jewish Foundation for the Righteous
A Holocaust Survivor: Lucille Eichengreen
PBS – Righteous Gentiles
Peshev – The Story
The Righteous Among the Nations
To save a life: stories of Jewish rescue
Survivors of the Shoah
Tulane – Holocaust Survivors
Waves and Images of the Holocaust
The Ghosts that Haunt Us
Hartmann: In The Camps
Images – camps
Photographs by Alan Jacobs
Shoah – The Holocaust
Terezin Concentration Camp