United Holocaust Memorial Museum
Yad Vashem
Varian Fry Institute
Varian Fry
Columbia University – Varian Fry Papers
Hero And Oddball
Sir Martin Gilbert: The Holocaust
Sir Martin Gilbert: The Righteous
BBC Online
Jewish World Review
Material licensed under the
GNU Free Documentation License
from Wikipedia.

What is the Holocaust?
The Holocaust was the systematic annihilation of six million Jews by the Nazi regime during World War 2. In 1933 approximately nine million Jews lived in the 21 countries of Europe that would be occupied by Germany during the war. By 1945 two out of every three European Jews had been killed. The European Jews were the primary victims of the Holocaust.

But Jews were not the only group singled out for persecution by Hitler�s Nazi regime. As many as one-half million Gypsies, at least 250,000 mentally or physically disabled persons, and more than three million Soviet prisoners-of-war also fell victim to Nazi genocide. Jehovah�s Witnesses, homosexuals, Social Democrats, Communists, partisans, trade unionists, Polish intelligentsia and other undesirables were also victims of the hate and aggression carried out by the Nazis.

How many Jews were murdered during the Holocaust?
While it is impossible to ascertain the exact number of Jewish victims, statistics indicate that the total was over 5,830,000. Six million is the round figure accepted by most authorities.

What does Final Solution mean?
The term Final Solution (Die Endlosung) refers to the Germans� plan to physically liquidate all Jews in Europe. The term was used at the Wannsee Conference held in Berlin on January 20, 1942, where German officials discussed its implementation.

How many children were murdered during the Holocaust?
The number of children killed during the Holocaust is not fathomable and full statistics for the tragic fate of children who died will never be known. Some estimates range as high as 1.5 million murdered children. This figure includes more than 1.2 million Jewish children, tens of thousands of Gypsy children and thousands of institutionalized handicapped children who were murdered under Nazi rule in Germany and occupied Europe.

Why did Hitler hate the Jews?
Holocaust happened because Hitler and the Nazis were racist. They believed the German people were a ‘master race’, who were superior to others. They even created a league table of ‘races’ with the Aryans at the top and with Jews, Gypsies and black people at the bottom. These ‘inferior’ people were seen as a threat to the purity and strength of the German nation. When the Nazis came to power they persecuted these people, took away their human rights and eventually decided that they should be exterminated.

How did the Nazis carry our their policy of genocide?
In the late 1930’s the Nazis killed thousands of handicapped Germans by lethal injection and poisonous gas. After the German invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, mobile killing units following in the wake of the German Army began shooting massive numbers of Jews and Gypsies in open fields and ravines on the outskirts of conquered cities and towns.

Eventually the Nazis created a more secluded and organized method of killing. Six extermination centers were established in occupied Poland where large-scale murder by gas and body disposal through cremation were conducted systematically. Victims were deported to these centers from Western Europe and from the ghettos in Eastern Europe which the Nazis had established. In addition, millions died in the ghettos and concentration camps as a result of forced labor, starvation, exposure, brutality, disease, and execution.

When was the first concentration camp established?
Dachau was the first concentration camp established and was opened on March 22, 1933. The camp’s first inmates were primarily political prisoners (Communists or Social Democrats), habitual criminals, homosexuals, Jehovah’s Witnesses, and anti-socials (beggars, vagrants, hawkers). Others considered problematic by the Nazis were also included (Jewish writers and journalists, lawyers, unpopular industrialists).

What is a death camp? How many? Where?
A death camp camp is a concentration camp with special apparatus especially designed for mass murder. Six such camps existed: Auschwitz-Birkenau, Belzec, Chelmno, Majdanek, Sobibor, and Treblinka. All were located in Poland.

What was Auschwitz-Birkenau?
Auschwitz-Birkenau became the killing centre where the largest numbers of European Jews were killed. After an experimental gassing there in September 1941 of 850 malnourished and ill  prisoners, mass murder became a daily routine. By mid 1942, mass gassing of Jews using Zyklon-B began at Auschwitz, where extermination was conducted on an industrial scale with some estimates running as high as three million persons eventually killed through gassing, starvation, disease, shooting, and burning.

Did the Jews resist?
Many Jews simply could not believe that Hitler really meant to kill them all. But once the Nazis had complete control and the Jews were being relocated to ghettos, rations were reduced, conditions were horrible and the Jews did not have the strength, physically, emotionally, or militarily, to resist. There were uprisings in the camps, but it was incredibly difficult and rarely successful.

Elie Wiesel put it this way: “The question is not why all the Jews did not fight, but how so many of them did. Tormented, beaten, starved, where did they find the strength – spiritual and physical – to resist?” Those attempting to resist faced almost impossible odds.

A Teacher’s Guide to the Holocaust

A – THE – World War 2 Portal

Ada Holtzman: We Remember!

Aktion Reinhard Camps

Court TV: A Look Back at Nuremberg

Cybrary of the Holocaust

David Dickerson Holocaust Resources

Dinur Center for the Study of Jewish History

War Crimes and Genocide

The Einsatzgruppen

Fortunoff Video Archive – Yale University

The Holocaust Chronicle web site

Holocaust Guide at about.com


The Holocaust History Project

The Holocaust\Shoah Page

Holocaust – A true story

Humor as a defense mechanism

The Jewish Student Online Research Center

The Kindertransport Organization Home Page

Lives, The Biography Resource

Literature of the Holocaust

March of the Living

The Nizkor Project

Non-Jewish Victims of the Holocaust

The Nuremberg War Crimes Trials

Online Holocaust Magazine

Polish Jews in World War II


The Simon Wiesenthal Center

Teaching the Holocaust through Stamps

Virtual Library Geschichte: Drittes Reich

Women And The Holocaust





A Virtual Tour of Auschwitz

Aktion Reinhard Camps

Auschwitz Alphabet

Auschwitz Endstation Vernichtung

Welcome to the Auschwitz Jewish Center

CAMP Sachsenhausen

Chelmno – testimonies of the last prisoners


Map Of the Camps

Nazi Concentration Camps 1933-1945


Anne Frank Center USA

Anne Frank House

Austrian Holocaust Memorial Service

El Paso Holocaust Museum and Study Center

The Ghetto Fighters’ House

Hiatt Collection of Holocaust Materials

Holocaust Memorial Center – Detroit, Michigan

Holocaust Museum Houston

Imperial War Museum – Holocaust Section

Moshe Rynecki (1881-1943) Virtual Museum

Museum of Jewish Heritage

Mus�e-m�morial des enfants d’Izieu

Neuengamme Concentration Camp Memorial

Raoul Wallenberg

The Candles Holocaust Museum

United States Holocaust Museum

Yad Vashem


The Chambon Foundation

Corrie ten Boom -‘The Secret Room’

Holocaust Rescuers Bibliography

Holocaust Survivors

Images from Rescuers 1986-1992

The Jewish Foundation for the Righteous

A Holocaust Survivor: Lucille Eichengreen

PBS – Righteous Gentiles

Peshev – The Story

The Righteous Among the Nations

To save a life: stories of Jewish rescue

Survivors of the Shoah

Tulane – Holocaust Survivors

Varian Fry

Waves and Images of the Holocaust

The Ghosts that Haunt Us

Hartmann: In The Camps

Images – camps

Photographs by Alan Jacobs

Shoah – The Holocaust

Terezin Concentration Camp